Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Where 8850 Form Applicant

Instructions and Help about Where 8850 Form Applicant

Native Americans also known as American Indians indigenous Americans and other terms are the indigenous peoples of the United States except Hawaii there are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the u.s. about half of which are associated with Indian reservations the term American Indian excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaskan Natives while Native Americans as defined by the US census are American Indians plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US census instead being included in the census grouping of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago possibly much earlier from Asia via Beringia a vast variety of peoples societies and cultures subsequently developed Native Americans were greatly affected by the European colonization of the Americas which began in 1492 and their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases warfare and slavery after the founding of the United States many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare removals and one-sided treaties and they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 21st century since the 1960's Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans today there are over five million Native Americans in the United States 78% of whom live outside reservations when the United States was created established Native American tribes were generally considered semi independent nations as they generally lived in communities separate from British settlers the federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent Native Nations and started treating them as domestic dependent nations subject to federal law this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties including a large degree of tribal sovereignty for this reason many but not all native American reservations are still independent of state law for this reason and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted US citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who had not yet obtained it this empty the Indians not taxed category established by the United States Constitution allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections and extended the 14th Amendment protections granted to people subject to the jurisdiction of the United States however some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades bill of rights protections do not apply to tribal governments except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 topic background since the end of the 15th century the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population cultural an agricultural transfer and adjustment between old and new world societies a process known as the Columbian Exchange as most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans ethnographers commonly classified the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits called cultural areas some scholars combine the plateau and Great Basin regions into the inter Montaigne West some separate prairie peoples from Great Plains people's while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the north eastern woodlands the ten cultural areas are as follows Arctic including Aleut Inuit and Yup'ik peoples subarctic northeastern woodlands South Eastern woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest Oasis America at the time of the first contact the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the prota industrial and mostly Christian immigrants some northeastern and southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than the Europeans were familiar with the majority of indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were extremely different the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war caused extensive political tension ethnic violence and social disruption even before the European settlement of what is now the United States Native Americans suffered high fatality x' from contact with new european diseases to which they had not yet acquired immunity the diseases were endemic to the Spanish and other Europeans and spread by direct contact and likely through pigs that escaped from expeditions smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations William M Donovan noted author and professor emeritus of geography at the University of wisconsin-madison said on this subject in his essay the pristine myth the landscape of the Americas in 1492 the decline of Native American populations was rapid and severe probably the greatest demographic disaster ever old world diseases were the primary killer in many regions particularly the tropical lowlands populations fell by 90% or more in the first century after the contact quot estimates of the pre-columbian population of what today constitutes the u.s. vary significantly ranging from William M Donovan's 3.8 million in his 1992 work the native population of the Americas in 1492 to 18 million in Henry F dobe ins is their number become thin 1983 Henry F Dobbins work being the highest single point estimate by far within the realm of professional academic research on the topic has been criticized for being politically motivated perhaps Dobbins most vehement critic is David henyk a bibliography of Africana at the University of Wisconsin whose numbers from nowhere 1998 is described as a landmark in the literature of demographic fulmination suspect in 1966 it is no less suspect nowadays hena drought of doe Benzes work if anything it is worse after