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Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Where 8850 Form Solutions

Instructions and Help about Where 8850 Form Solutions

So what does it mean that a compound is soluble in water what happens when a compound is dissolved in water let's use sodium chloride for example sodium chloride is table salt and if you were to pour table salt in water the table salt would appear to disappear it would dissolve in the water you won't see anymore you'll just have one clear solution but what's actually happening inside and chloride you have positive sodium cations and negative chloride ions attached to each other and so you got this big solid that's composed of ions and once you place this ionic crystal in water the water molecules are going to pull apart this crystal water is polar the oxygen part of water has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen part is partially positive overall water is electrically neutral but oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen so it pulls the electrons toward itself does oxygen has a partial negative charge and hydrogen is partially positive due to this partial charge of the elements in water that makes water polar and a lot of salts like sodium chloride and other compounds they tend to dissolve in polar solvents so the oxygen part of water is attracted to sodium now we can see why opposites attract sodium has a positive charge oxygen has a partial negative charge the hydrogen part of water which has a partial positive charge that's attracted to the negatively charged chlorine atom and so what happens is that all of these water molecules are slowly pulling each ion in the crystal away from each other so the oxygen is pulling away the sodium ions and the hydrogen atoms are pulling away in the chloride ions so eventually these ions move apart and they're more attracted to water than themselves and that's why sodium applied dissolves in water the sodium chloride ions they have a greater affinity for water than they do with themselves and so what it pulls it apart and then it dissolves so once all of the sodium cations and chloride anions once they're all pulled apart this is the situation that we now have each sodium ion Kickham on a cation is simply a positively charged ion each cation is surrounded by water molecules notice that the oxygen part of water is facing sodium remember opposites attract oxygen has that partial negative charge and so it's attracted to the positively charged sodium cation so at this point the sodium ion is dissolved in water it's surrounded by water molecules and the chloride cation I mean the chloride anion and ions have negative charges they're surrounded by the hydrogen atoms of water now as was mentioned before the hydrogen atoms contain a partial positive charge and so it's attracted to the negatively charged chloride ion and so the water it basically stabilizes it and so that's a situation that happens when sodium chloride dissolves in water but let me give you a picture so let's say we have a beaker and we have water in it and let's say we're going to put a crystal of sodium chloride so before it dissolves you have all of the sodium and chloride ions together so the positively charged ions are the sodium ions and the negatively charged ions are the chloride ions and as soon as this crystal hits water what is going to try to pull it apart so the oxygen part of water pulls away sodium ions and the hydrogen part of water pulls away the chloride ions so in time all of these ions will be dissolved they will be separated from each other so we're still going to have the same number of ions as you can see water just pulls all of them apart you so all of the sodium ions are now separate from each other and all of the chloride ions are separate from each other I think I have an additional circle but you get the picture so that's what happens when an ionic compound dissolves in water the crystal breaks apart and it separates into positive and negatively charged ions so when you have a saltwater solution because you have ions in a solution this solution is electrically conductive you can conduct electricity so let's say for example if you mix sodium chloride away for water and if you take two copper electrodes it give you to zinc electrodes really doesn't matter but let's use two copper electrodes and if you connect it to a 9-volt battery which is also in series with a light bulb you'll see that the light bulb is going to light up it's actually it's going to be very bright so the more salt that you add the greater the conductivity will be so the light bulb is going to be bright but if you try to use pure water it's not going to light up if you use tap water there might be some dissolved ions in it so it's probably going to be dim but as you add sodium chloride to it you should see the light bulb getting brighter and brighter because the solution of sodium chloride conducts electricity it is known as an electrolyte now because it conducts electricity very well it is a strong electrolyte any ionic compound that is soluble is a strong electrolyte it ionized is completely you can say almost the ionization is almost a hundred percent so for every 100 molecules or 100 formal units of sodium chloride you're going to have a hundred sodium ions and 100 chloride ions strong acids are also strong electrolytes they connect electricity very well weak electrolytes they only partially conduct electricity the light bulb will be very dim so let's say if you dissolve a weak acid like acetic acid acetic acid doesn't dissolve very well it's fine in vinegar it ionizes a little maybe about 1% so the light bulb is going to light up.

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