Which 8850 Form Discharged
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Which 8850 Form Discharged 2016-2019

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Welcome to space news from the electric universe brought to you by the thunderbolts project at Thunderbolts dot info the electric universe theory has laid the foundations for an entirely new understanding of planetary geology for decades experimentalists using electrical discharges have reproduced many familiar geological features including types of crater forms that have long proved puzzling to standard geology these experiments may provide clues to past events that the scientific mainstream has never entertained high-energy electrical discharges at an interplanetary scale is it possible to integrate these new possibilities into a geology that also includes standard geological processes in this episode our guest Barry centerfield the astronomer at the New Hope Observatory in Grants Pass Oregon outlines a number of guidelines for assessing whether craters on planets moons and other bodies were created by impacts or by electrical discharge machining ok well I was teaching astronomy at the time and the issue of the origin of craters on astronomical objects of all sizes had come up and we needed to resolve this issue with the year with the students for example in the days before the Apollo moon landings and even sir for some time after there's a strong body of opinion which held that all such craters were the result of volcanism and that idea died slowly it was replaced by the idea that all craters are the result of impact but then the results of electrical experiments became available which sold problems that the neither impact nor volcanism could and are needed to do some cratering experiments to distinguish between the various types of craters and then present these results to my students volcanism usually has craters at the tops of mountains unlike the moon and planets the crater bottoms there go below the level of the surrounding Plains the volcanic craters that look like those on the moon are called called aircrews but the calderas are only circular and a ground level if the collapse to a depression Paul is the first major volcanic outburst and that's rather rare the basic rule of thumb is that the rim material of lunar craters will approximately fill the pit this is not usually the case of volcanic calderas which have a different profile however it is the case with these other two methods now venus is covered with 1,600 volcanoes mainly yet the shield type of volcano which is similar to those in Hawaii but they're more broad and flat radar surveys also show that Venus has about 1,000 craters similar to the moon and Mercury and Mars and these have a different character and so they formed by different processes in addition the proliferation of craters on very small asteroids and dwarf planets rules out volcanism as being the origin for those craters you can't have a volcanic hot magma sent into such a small body it doesn't work so there are features of both impact based and electrically based crater formation that correspond with what we see on objects in our solar system both methods of crater formation describe some but not all of the features that we observe from the electrical in our experimental analyses that I have done it seems that we have a mix of both electrical and impact based craters and these experiments seem to allow us to determine whether or not a particular crater may have formed by impact or by electrical discharge machining EDM craters can be formed by the impact of some solid body such as an asteroid or a meteorite and as that body hits a planetary surfaces velocity can range up to 45 miles per second which is pretty fast this can be simulated in the lab experimental II since real impacts will smash any material from soft pumice to alloy steel the material that we use in the lab should have no tensile strength now there is such a material and it's dust and for practical reasons we use cement dust comes in uniform quality and so we have a layer of cement dust about six inches thick in a large box or a pan and the meteorite is then a spoonfuls slightly compressed cement dust dropped from a height of about four feet the resulting craters have a striking resemblance to lunar craters generally in the case of an actual impact is the impact or penetrates the surface it pushes ahead of it an increasingly large plug of matter that becomes intensely hot and under high pressure eventually the pressures involved reached something like two hundred thousand atmosphere and this stops the plug of intensely hot material and then a massive explosion occurs it doesn't matter what direction the meteorite comes from the focus of the explosion forms a circular crater around that the pressures involved from what is form what is called shocked quartz in the plug which can't be formed by volcanic processes as the crater forms the horizontal strata at the rim of the crater becomes upturned and folded back on itself by the explosion so the strata will actually fall back in a reverse order like a mirror image these mirror image strata sit beneath the debris layer near the rim and is an expected feature of many impact craters the impact craters can exhibit rays made up of powdered material thrown out from the explosion center these rays are bilaterally symmetrical mirror image that is not radially symmetrical typical of and this is typical of explosion pits on earth best example on the moon Earth of the race is the right system of the crater tacho impact craters often have radial ridges of material excavated from the explosion as well and in addition there will be central Peaks formed for crisis within a specific size range that range depends on the gravitational pull of the planet or the moon that's formed on lesser gravity means larger craters for explosions of the same energy crisis from impact will often have

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